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"Object Detection": models, code, and papers

Fooling Detection Alone is Not Enough: First Adversarial Attack against Multiple Object Tracking

May 27, 2019
Yunhan Jia, Yantao Lu, Junjie Shen, Qi Alfred Chen, Zhenyu Zhong, Tao Wei

Recent work in adversarial machine learning started to focus on the visual perception in autonomous driving and studied Adversarial Examples (AEs) for object detection models. However, in such visual perception pipeline the detected objects must also be tracked, in a process called Multiple Object Tracking (MOT), to build the moving trajectories of surrounding obstacles. Since MOT is designed to be robust against errors in object detection, it poses a general challenge to existing attack techniques that blindly target objection detection: we find that a success rate of over 98% is needed for them to actually affect the tracking results, a requirement that no existing attack technique can satisfy. In this paper, we are the first to study adversarial machine learning attacks against the complete visual perception pipeline in autonomous driving, and discover a novel attack technique, tracker hijacking, that can effectively fool MOT using AEs on object detection. Using our technique, successful AEs on as few as one single frame can move an existing object in to or out of the headway of an autonomous vehicle to cause potential safety hazards. We perform evaluation using the Berkeley Deep Drive dataset and find that on average when 3 frames are attacked, our attack can have a nearly 100% success rate while attacks that blindly target object detection only have up to 25%.

  
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Self-explanatory Deep Salient Object Detection

Aug 18, 2017
Huaxin Xiao, Jiashi Feng, Yunchao Wei, Maojun Zhang

Salient object detection has seen remarkable progress driven by deep learning techniques. However, most of deep learning based salient object detection methods are black-box in nature and lacking in interpretability. This paper proposes the first self-explanatory saliency detection network that explicitly exploits low- and high-level features for salient object detection. We demonstrate that such supportive clues not only significantly enhances performance of salient object detection but also gives better justified detection results. More specifically, we develop a multi-stage saliency encoder to extract multi-scale features which contain both low- and high-level saliency context. Dense short- and long-range connections are introduced to reuse these features iteratively. Benefiting from the direct access to low- and high-level features, the proposed saliency encoder can not only model the object context but also preserve the boundary. Furthermore, a self-explanatory generator is proposed to interpret how the proposed saliency encoder or other deep saliency models making decisions. The generator simulates the absence of interesting features by preventing these features from contributing to the saliency classifier and estimates the corresponding saliency prediction without these features. A comparison function, saliency explanation, is defined to measure the prediction changes between deep saliency models and corresponding generator. Through visualizing the differences, we can interpret the capability of different deep neural networks based saliency detection models and demonstrate that our proposed model indeed uses more reasonable structure for salient object detection. Extensive experiments on five popular benchmark datasets and the visualized saliency explanation demonstrate that the proposed method provides new state-of-the-art.

  
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HAR-Net: Joint Learning of Hybrid Attention for Single-stage Object Detection

Apr 25, 2019
Ya-Li Li, Shengjin Wang

Object detection has been a challenging task in computer vision. Although significant progress has been made in object detection with deep neural networks, the attention mechanism is far from development. In this paper, we propose the hybrid attention mechanism for single-stage object detection. First, we present the modules of spatial attention, channel attention and aligned attention for single-stage object detection. In particular, stacked dilated convolution layers with symmetrically fixed rates are constructed to learn spatial attention. The channel attention is proposed with the cross-level group normalization and squeeze-and-excitation module. Aligned attention is constructed with organized deformable filters. Second, the three kinds of attention are unified to construct the hybrid attention mechanism. We then embed the hybrid attention into Retina-Net and propose the efficient single-stage HAR-Net for object detection. The attention modules and the proposed HAR-Net are evaluated on the COCO detection dataset. Experiments demonstrate that hybrid attention can significantly improve the detection accuracy and the HAR-Net can achieve the state-of-the-art 45.8\% mAP, outperform existing single-stage object detectors.

  
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Detecting and Matching Related Objects with One Proposal Multiple Predictions

Apr 23, 2021
Yang Liu, Luiz G. Hafemann, Michael Jamieson, Mehrsan Javan

Tracking players in sports videos is commonly done in a tracking-by-detection framework, first detecting players in each frame, and then performing association over time. While for some sports tracking players is sufficient for game analysis, sports like hockey, tennis and polo may require additional detections, that include the object the player is holding (e.g. racket, stick). The baseline solution for this problem involves detecting these objects as separate classes, and matching them to player detections based on the intersection over union (IoU). This approach, however, leads to poor matching performance in crowded situations, as it does not model the relationship between players and objects. In this paper, we propose a simple yet efficient way to detect and match players and related objects at once without extra cost, by considering an implicit association for prediction of multiple objects through the same proposal box. We evaluate the method on a dataset of broadcast ice hockey videos, and also a new public dataset we introduce called COCO +Torso. On the ice hockey dataset, the proposed method boosts matching performance from 57.1% to 81.4%, while also improving the meanAP of player+stick detections from 68.4% to 88.3%. On the COCO +Torso dataset, we see matching improving from 47.9% to 65.2%. The COCO +Torso dataset, code and pre-trained models will be released at https://github.com/foreverYoungGitHub/detect-and-match-related-objects.

* CVPR workshop 2021 
  
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CAD-Net: A Context-Aware Detection Network for Objects in Remote Sensing Imagery

Mar 03, 2019
Gongjie Zhang, Shijian Lu, Wei Zhang

Accurate and robust detection of multi-class objects in optical remote sensing images is essential to many real-world applications such as urban planning, traffic control, searching and rescuing, etc. However, state-of-the-art object detection techniques designed for images captured using ground-level sensors usually experience a sharp performance drop when directly applied to remote sensing images, largely due to the object appearance differences in remote sensing images in term of sparse texture, low contrast, arbitrary orientations, large scale variations, etc. This paper presents a novel object detection network (CAD-Net) that exploits attention-modulated features as well as global and local contexts to address the new challenges in detecting objects from remote sensing images. The proposed CAD-Net learns global and local contexts of objects by capturing their correlations with the global scene (at scene-level) and the local neighboring objects or features (at object-level), respectively. In addition, it designs a spatial-and-scale-aware attention module that guides the network to focus on more informative regions and features as well as more appropriate feature scales. Experiments over two publicly available object detection datasets for remote sensing images demonstrate that the proposed CAD-Net achieves superior detection performance. The implementation codes will be made publicly available for facilitating future researches.

  
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Improved detection of small objects in road network sequences

May 18, 2021
Iván García, Rafael Marcos Luque, Ezequiel López

The vast number of existing IP cameras in current road networks is an opportunity to take advantage of the captured data and analyze the video and detect any significant events. For this purpose, it is necessary to detect moving vehicles, a task that was carried out using classical artificial vision techniques until a few years ago. Nowadays, significant improvements have been obtained by deep learning networks. Still, object detection is considered one of the leading open issues within computer vision. The current scenario is constantly evolving, and new models and techniques are appearing trying to improve this field. In particular, new problems and drawbacks appear regarding detecting small objects, which correspond mainly to the vehicles that appear in the road scenes. All this means that new solutions that try to improve the low detection rate of small elements are essential. Among the different emerging research lines, this work focuses on the detection of small objects. In particular, our proposal aims to vehicle detection from images captured by video surveillance cameras. In this work, we propose a new procedure for detecting small-scale objects by applying super-resolution processes based on detections performed by convolutional neural networks \emph{(CNN)}. The neural network is integrated with processes that are in charge of increasing the resolution of the images to improve the object detection performance. This solution has been tested for a set of traffic images containing elements of different scales to test the efficiency according to the detections obtained by the model, thus demonstrating that our proposal achieves good results in a wide range of situations.

  
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Activity Driven Weakly Supervised Object Detection

Apr 02, 2019
Zhenheng Yang, Dhruv Mahajan, Deepti Ghadiyaram, Ram Nevatia, Vignesh Ramanathan

Weakly supervised object detection aims at reducing the amount of supervision required to train detection models. Such models are traditionally learned from images/videos labelled only with the object class and not the object bounding box. In our work, we try to leverage not only the object class labels but also the action labels associated with the data. We show that the action depicted in the image/video can provide strong cues about the location of the associated object. We learn a spatial prior for the object dependent on the action (e.g. "ball" is closer to "leg of the person" in "kicking ball"), and incorporate this prior to simultaneously train a joint object detection and action classification model. We conducted experiments on both video datasets and image datasets to evaluate the performance of our weakly supervised object detection model. Our approach outperformed the current state-of-the-art (SOTA) method by more than 6% in mAP on the Charades video dataset.

* CVPR'19 camera ready 
  
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Enhanced Object Detection via Fusion With Prior Beliefs from Image Classification

Oct 21, 2016
Yilun Cao, Hyungtae Lee, Heesung Kwon

In this paper, we introduce a novel fusion method that can enhance object detection performance by fusing decisions from two different types of computer vision tasks: object detection and image classification. In the proposed work, the class label of an image obtained from image classification is viewed as prior knowledge about existence or non-existence of certain objects. The prior knowledge is then fused with the decisions of object detection to improve detection accuracy by mitigating false positives of an object detector that are strongly contradicted with the prior knowledge. A recently introduced novel fusion approach called dynamic belief fusion (DBF) is used to fuse the detector output with the classification prior. Experimental results show that the detection performance of all the detection algorithms used in the proposed work is improved on benchmark datasets via the proposed fusion framework.

  
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Track to Detect and Segment: An Online Multi-Object Tracker

Mar 16, 2021
Jialian Wu, Jiale Cao, Liangchen Song, Yu Wang, Ming Yang, Junsong Yuan

Most online multi-object trackers perform object detection stand-alone in a neural net without any input from tracking. In this paper, we present a new online joint detection and tracking model, TraDeS (TRAck to DEtect and Segment), exploiting tracking clues to assist detection end-to-end. TraDeS infers object tracking offset by a cost volume, which is used to propagate previous object features for improving current object detection and segmentation. Effectiveness and superiority of TraDeS are shown on 4 datasets, including MOT (2D tracking), nuScenes (3D tracking), MOTS and Youtube-VIS (instance segmentation tracking). Project page: https://jialianwu.com/projects/TraDeS.html.

* Accepted to CVPR 2021 
  
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The Effects of Super-Resolution on Object Detection Performance in Satellite Imagery

Dec 12, 2018
Jacob Shermeyer, Adam Van Etten

We explore the application of super-resolution techniques to satellite imagery, and the effects of these techniques on object detection algorithm performance. Specifically, we enhance satellite imagery beyond its native resolution, and test if we can identify various types of vehicles, planes, and boats with greater accuracy than native resolution. Using the Very Deep Super-Resolution (VDSR) framework and a custom Random Forest Super-Resolution (RFSR) framework we generate enhancement levels of 2x, 4x, and 8x over five distinct resolutions ranging from 30 cm to 4.8 meters. Using both native and super-resolved data, we then train several custom detection models using the SIMRDWN object detection framework. SIMRDWN combines a number of popular object detection algorithms (e.g. SSD, YOLO) into a unified framework that is designed to rapidly detect objects in large satellite images. This approach allows us to quantify the effects of super-resolution techniques on object detection performance across multiple classes and resolutions. We also quantify the performance of object detection as a function of native resolution and object pixel size. For our test set we note that performance degrades from mAP = 0.5 at 30 cm resolution, down to mAP = 0.12 at 4.8 m resolution. Super-resolving native 30 cm imagery to 15 cm yields the greatest benefit; a 16-20% improvement in mAP. Super-resolution is less beneficial at coarser resolutions, though still provides a 3-10% improvement.

  
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