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"Information": models, code, and papers

World Discovery Models

Mar 01, 2019
Mohammad Gheshlaghi Azar, Bilal Piot, Bernardo Avila Pires, Jean-Bastien Grill, Florent Altché, Rémi Munos

As humans we are driven by a strong desire for seeking novelty in our world. Also upon observing a novel pattern we are capable of refining our understanding of the world based on the new information---humans can discover their world. The outstanding ability of the human mind for discovery has led to many breakthroughs in science, art and technology. Here we investigate the possibility of building an agent capable of discovering its world using the modern AI technology. In particular we introduce NDIGO, Neural Differential Information Gain Optimisation, a self-supervised discovery model that aims at seeking new information to construct a global view of its world from partial and noisy observations. Our experiments on some controlled 2-D navigation tasks show that NDIGO outperforms state-of-the-art information-seeking methods in terms of the quality of the learned representation. The improvement in performance is particularly significant in the presence of white or structured noise where other information-seeking methods follow the noise instead of discovering their world.


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Privacy-aware Early Detection of COVID-19 through Adversarial Training

Jan 09, 2022
Omid Rohanian, Samaneh Kouchaki, Andrew Soltan, Jenny Yang, Morteza Rohanian, Yang Yang, David Clifton

Early detection of COVID-19 is an ongoing area of research that can help with triage, monitoring and general health assessment of potential patients and may reduce operational strain on hospitals that cope with the coronavirus pandemic. Different machine learning techniques have been used in the literature to detect coronavirus using routine clinical data (blood tests, and vital signs). Data breaches and information leakage when using these models can bring reputational damage and cause legal issues for hospitals. In spite of this, protecting healthcare models against leakage of potentially sensitive information is an understudied research area. In this work, we examine two machine learning approaches, intended to predict a patient's COVID-19 status using routinely collected and readily available clinical data. We employ adversarial training to explore robust deep learning architectures that protect attributes related to demographic information about the patients. The two models we examine in this work are intended to preserve sensitive information against adversarial attacks and information leakage. In a series of experiments using datasets from the Oxford University Hospitals, Bedfordshire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, and Portsmouth Hospitals University NHS Trust we train and test two neural networks that predict PCR test results using information from basic laboratory blood tests, and vital signs performed on a patients' arrival to hospital. We assess the level of privacy each one of the models can provide and show the efficacy and robustness of our proposed architectures against a comparable baseline. One of our main contributions is that we specifically target the development of effective COVID-19 detection models with built-in mechanisms in order to selectively protect sensitive attributes against adversarial attacks.


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CoSEM: Contextual and Semantic Embedding for App Usage Prediction

Aug 26, 2021
Yonchanok Khaokaew, Mohammad Saiedur Rahaman, Ryen W. White, Flora D. Salim

App usage prediction is important for smartphone system optimization to enhance user experience. Existing modeling approaches utilize historical app usage logs along with a wide range of semantic information to predict the app usage; however, they are only effective in certain scenarios and cannot be generalized across different situations. This paper address this problem by developing a model called Contextual and Semantic Embedding model for App Usage Prediction (CoSEM) for app usage prediction that leverages integration of 1) semantic information embedding and 2) contextual information embedding based on historical app usage of individuals. Extensive experiments show that the combination of semantic information and history app usage information enables our model to outperform the baselines on three real-world datasets, achieving an MRR score over 0.55,0.57,0.86 and Hit rate scores of more than 0.71, 0.75, and 0.95, respectively.

* 5 pages, short paper in Proceedings of the 30th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '21) 

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PeaceGAN: A GAN-based Multi-Task Learning Method for SAR Target Image Generation with a Pose Estimator and an Auxiliary Classifier

Mar 29, 2021
Jihyong Oh, Munchurl Kim

Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are successfully applied to diverse fields, training GANs on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data is a challenging task mostly due to speckle noise. On the one hands, in a learning perspective of human's perception, it is natural to learn a task by using various information from multiple sources. However, in the previous GAN works on SAR target image generation, the information on target classes has only been used. Due to the backscattering characteristics of SAR image signals, the shapes and structures of SAR target images are strongly dependent on their pose angles. Nevertheless, the pose angle information has not been incorporated into such generative models for SAR target images. In this paper, we firstly propose a novel GAN-based multi-task learning (MTL) method for SAR target image generation, called PeaceGAN that uses both pose angle and target class information, which makes it possible to produce SAR target images of desired target classes at intended pose angles. For this, the PeaceGAN has two additional structures, a pose estimator and an auxiliary classifier, at the side of its discriminator to combine the pose and class information more efficiently. In addition, the PeaceGAN is jointly learned in an end-to-end manner as MTL with both pose angle and target class information, thus enhancing the diversity and quality of generated SAR target images The extensive experiments show that taking an advantage of both pose angle and target class learning by the proposed pose estimator and auxiliary classifier can help the PeaceGAN's generator effectively learn the distributions of SAR target images in the MTL framework, so that it can better generate the SAR target images more flexibly and faithfully at intended pose angles for desired target classes compared to the recent state-of-the-art methods.

* 14 pages, 10 figures, 6 tables 

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GraphSW: a training protocol based on stage-wise training for GNN-based Recommender Model

Aug 19, 2019
Chang-You Tai, Meng-Ru Wu, Yun-Wei Chu, Shao-Yu Chu

Recently, researchers utilize Knowledge Graph (KG) as side information in recommendation system to address cold start and sparsity issue and improve the recommendation performance. Existing KG-aware recommendation model use the feature of neighboring entities and structural information to update the embedding of currently located entity. Although the fruitful information is beneficial to the following task, the cost of exploring the entire graph is massive and impractical. In order to reduce the computational cost and maintain the pattern of extracting features, KG-aware recommendation model usually utilize fixed-size and random set of neighbors rather than complete information in KG. Nonetheless, there are two critical issues in these approaches: First of all, fixed-size and randomly selected neighbors restrict the view of graph. In addition, as the order of graph feature increases, the growth of parameter dimensionality of the model may lead the training process hard to converge. To solve the aforementioned limitations, we propose GraphSW, a strategy based on stage-wise training framework which would only access to a subset of the entities in KG in every stage. During the following stages, the learned embedding from previous stages is provided to the network in the next stage and the model can learn the information gradually from the KG. We apply stage-wise training on two SOTA recommendation models, RippleNet and Knowledge Graph Convolutional Networks (KGCN). Moreover, we evaluate the performance on six real world datasets, Last.FM 2011, Book-Crossing,movie, LFM-1b 2015, Amazon-book and Yelp 2018. The result of our experiments shows that proposed strategy can help both models to collect more information from the KG and improve the performance. Furthermore, it is observed that GraphSW can assist KGCN to converge effectively in high-order graph feature.


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Augmenting Neural Networks with Priors on Function Values

Feb 21, 2022
Hunter Nisonoff, Yixin Wang, Jennifer Listgarten

The need for function estimation in label-limited settings is common in the natural sciences. At the same time, prior knowledge of function values is often available in these domains. For example, data-free biophysics-based models can be informative on protein properties, while quantum-based computations can be informative on small molecule properties. How can we coherently leverage such prior knowledge to help improve a neural network model that is quite accurate in some regions of input space -- typically near the training data -- but wildly wrong in other regions? Bayesian neural networks (BNN) enable the user to specify prior information only on the neural network weights, not directly on the function values. Moreover, there is in general no clear mapping between these. Herein, we tackle this problem by developing an approach to augment BNNs with prior information on the function values themselves. Our probabilistic approach yields predictions that rely more heavily on the prior information when the epistemic uncertainty is large, and more heavily on the neural network when the epistemic uncertainty is small.


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Analysis of Bag-of-n-grams Representation's Properties Based on Textual Reconstruction

Sep 18, 2018
Qi Huang, Zhanghao Chen, Zijie Lu, Yuan Ye

Despite its simplicity, bag-of-n-grams sen- tence representation has been found to excel in some NLP tasks. However, it has not re- ceived much attention in recent years and fur- ther analysis on its properties is necessary. We propose a framework to investigate the amount and type of information captured in a general- purposed bag-of-n-grams sentence represen- tation. We first use sentence reconstruction as a tool to obtain bag-of-n-grams representa- tion that contains general information of the sentence. We then run prediction tasks (sen- tence length, word content, phrase content and word order) using the obtained representation to look into the specific type of information captured in the representation. Our analysis demonstrates that bag-of-n-grams representa- tion does contain sentence structure level in- formation. However, incorporating n-grams with higher order n empirically helps little with encoding more information in general, except for phrase content information.


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Learning to Evolve on Dynamic Graphs

Nov 13, 2021
Xintao Xiang, Tiancheng Huang, Donglin Wang

Representation learning in dynamic graphs is a challenging problem because the topology of graph and node features vary at different time. This requires the model to be able to effectively capture both graph topology information and temporal information. Most existing works are built on recurrent neural networks (RNNs), which are used to exact temporal information of dynamic graphs, and thus they inherit the same drawbacks of RNNs. In this paper, we propose Learning to Evolve on Dynamic Graphs (LEDG) - a novel algorithm that jointly learns graph information and time information. Specifically, our approach utilizes gradient-based meta-learning to learn updating strategies that have better generalization ability than RNN on snapshots. It is model-agnostic and thus can train any message passing based graph neural network (GNN) on dynamic graphs. To enhance the representation power, we disentangle the embeddings into time embeddings and graph intrinsic embeddings. We conduct experiments on various datasets and down-stream tasks, and the experimental results validate the effectiveness of our method.


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