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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

A Saliency-based Convolutional Neural Network for Table and Chart Detection in Digitized Documents

Apr 17, 2018
I. Kavasidis, S. Palazzo, C. Spampinato, C. Pino, D. Giordano, D. Giuffrida, P. Messina

Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) have recently been applied successfully to a variety of vision and multimedia tasks, thus driving development of novel solutions in several application domains. Document analysis is a particularly promising area for DCNNs: indeed, the number of available digital documents has reached unprecedented levels, and humans are no longer able to discover and retrieve all the information contained in these documents without the help of automation. Under this scenario, DCNNs offers a viable solution to automate the information extraction process from digital documents. Within the realm of information extraction from documents, detection of tables and charts is particularly needed as they contain a visual summary of the most valuable information contained in a document. For a complete automation of visual information extraction process from tables and charts, it is necessary to develop techniques that localize them and identify precisely their boundaries. In this paper we aim at solving the table/chart detection task through an approach that combines deep convolutional neural networks, graphical models and saliency concepts. In particular, we propose a saliency-based fully-convolutional neural network performing multi-scale reasoning on visual cues followed by a fully-connected conditional random field (CRF) for localizing tables and charts in digital/digitized documents. Performance analysis carried out on an extended version of ICDAR 2013 (with annotated charts as well as tables) shows that our approach yields promising results, outperforming existing models.

  

Text-to-Table: A New Way of Information Extraction

Sep 06, 2021
Xueqing Wu, Jiacheng Zhang, Hang Li

We study a new problem setting of information extraction (IE), referred to as text-to-table, which can be viewed as an inverse problem of the well-studied table-to-text. In text-to-table, given a text, one creates a table or several tables expressing the main content of the text, while the model is learned from text-table pair data. The problem setting differs from those of the existing methods for IE. First, the extraction can be carried out from long texts to large tables with complex structures. Second, the extraction is entirely data-driven, and there is no need to explicitly define the schemas. As far as we know, there has been no previous work that studies the problem. In this work, we formalize text-to-table as a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) problem. We first employ a seq2seq model fine-tuned from a pre-trained language model to perform the task. We also develop a new method within the seq2seq approach, exploiting two additional techniques in table generation: table constraint and table relation embeddings. We make use of four existing table-to-text datasets in our experiments on text-to-table. Experimental results show that the vanilla seq2seq model can outperform the baseline methods of using relation extraction and named entity extraction. The results also show that our method can further boost the performances of the vanilla seq2seq model. We further discuss the main challenges of the proposed task. The code and data will be made publicly available.

  

Assessment of Amazon Comprehend Medical: Medication Information Extraction

Feb 02, 2020
Benedict Guzman, MS, Isabel Metzger, MS, Yindalon Aphinyanaphongs, M. D., Ph. D., Himanshu Grover, Ph. D

In November 27, 2018, Amazon Web Services (AWS) released Amazon Comprehend Medical (ACM), a deep learning based system that automatically extracts clinical concepts (which include anatomy, medical conditions, protected health information (PH)I, test names, treatment names, and medical procedures, and medications) from clinical text notes. Uptake and trust in any new data product relies on independent validation across benchmark datasets and tools to establish and confirm expected quality of results. This work focuses on the medication extraction task, and particularly, ACM was evaluated using the official test sets from the 2009 i2b2 Medication Extraction Challenge and 2018 n2c2 Track 2: Adverse Drug Events and Medication Extraction in EHRs. Overall, ACM achieved F-scores of 0.768 and 0.828. These scores ranked the lowest when compared to the three best systems in the respective challenges. To further establish the generalizability of its medication extraction performance, a set of random internal clinical text notes from NYU Langone Medical Center were also included in this work. And in this corpus, ACM garnered an F-score of 0.753.

  

End-to-End Information Extraction by Character-Level Embedding and Multi-Stage Attentional U-Net

Jun 02, 2021
Tuan-Anh Nguyen Dang, Dat-Thanh Nguyen

Information extraction from document images has received a lot of attention recently, due to the need for digitizing a large volume of unstructured documents such as invoices, receipts, bank transfers, etc. In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning architecture for end-to-end information extraction on the 2D character-grid embedding of the document, namely the \textit{Multi-Stage Attentional U-Net}. To effectively capture the textual and spatial relations between 2D elements, our model leverages a specialized multi-stage encoder-decoders design, in conjunction with efficient uses of the self-attention mechanism and the box convolution. Experimental results on different datasets show that our model outperforms the baseline U-Net architecture by a large margin while using 40\% fewer parameters. Moreover, it also significantly improved the baseline in erroneous OCR and limited training data scenario, thus becomes practical for real-world applications.

* 30th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC) 2019 
* Accepted to BMVC 2019 
  

Injecting Knowledge Base Information into End-to-End Joint Entity and Relation Extraction and Coreference Resolution

Jul 05, 2021
Severine Verlinden, Klim Zaporojets, Johannes Deleu, Thomas Demeester, Chris Develder

We consider a joint information extraction (IE) model, solving named entity recognition, coreference resolution and relation extraction jointly over the whole document. In particular, we study how to inject information from a knowledge base (KB) in such IE model, based on unsupervised entity linking. The used KB entity representations are learned from either (i) hyperlinked text documents (Wikipedia), or (ii) a knowledge graph (Wikidata), and appear complementary in raising IE performance. Representations of corresponding entity linking (EL) candidates are added to text span representations of the input document, and we experiment with (i) taking a weighted average of the EL candidate representations based on their prior (in Wikipedia), and (ii) using an attention scheme over the EL candidate list. Results demonstrate an increase of up to 5% F1-score for the evaluated IE tasks on two datasets. Despite a strong performance of the prior-based model, our quantitative and qualitative analysis reveals the advantage of using the attention-based approach.

  

Intelligent Agent for Hurricane Emergency Identification and Text Information Extraction from Streaming Social Media Big Data

Jun 14, 2021
Jingwei Huang, Wael Khallouli, Ghaith Rabadi, Mamadou Seck

This paper presents our research on leveraging social media Big Data and AI to support hurricane disaster emergency response. The current practice of hurricane emergency response for rescue highly relies on emergency call centres. The more recent Hurricane Harvey event reveals the limitations of the current systems. We use Hurricane Harvey and the associated Houston flooding as the motivating scenario to conduct research and develop a prototype as a proof-of-concept of using an intelligent agent as a complementary role to support emergency centres in hurricane emergency response. This intelligent agent is used to collect real-time streaming tweets during a natural disaster event, to identify tweets requesting rescue, to extract key information such as address and associated geocode, and to visualize the extracted information in an interactive map in decision supports. Our experiment shows promising outcomes and the potential application of the research in support of hurricane emergency response.

* 16 pages, 3 figures, and 1 table 
  

TRACER: Extreme Attention Guided Salient Object Tracing Network

Dec 14, 2021
Min Seok Lee, WooSeok Shin, Sung Won Han

Existing studies on salient object detection (SOD) focus on extracting distinct objects with edge information and aggregating multi-level features to improve SOD performance. To achieve satisfactory performance, the methods employ refined edge information and low multi-level discrepancy. However, both performance gain and computational efficiency cannot be attained, which has motivated us to study the inefficiencies in existing encoder-decoder structures to avoid this trade-off. We propose TRACER, which detects salient objects with explicit edges by incorporating attention guided tracing modules. We employ a masked edge attention module at the end of the first encoder using a fast Fourier transform to propagate the refined edge information to the downstream feature extraction. In the multi-level aggregation phase, the union attention module identifies the complementary channel and important spatial information. To improve the decoder performance and computational efficiency, we minimize the decoder block usage with object attention module. This module extracts undetected objects and edge information from refined channels and spatial representations. Subsequently, we propose an adaptive pixel intensity loss function to deal with the relatively important pixels unlike conventional loss functions which treat all pixels equally. A comparison with 13 existing methods reveals that TRACER achieves state-of-the-art performance on five benchmark datasets. In particular, TRACER-Efficient3 (TE3) outperforms LDF, an existing method while requiring 1.8x fewer learning parameters and less time; TE3 is 5x faster.

* AAAI 2022, SA poster session accepted paper 
  

Interpretable Self-supervised Multi-task Learning for COVID-19 Information Retrieval and Extraction

Jun 15, 2021
Nima Ebadi, Peyman Najafirad

The rapidly evolving literature of COVID-19 related articles makes it challenging for NLP models to be effectively trained for information retrieval and extraction with the corresponding labeled data that follows the current distribution of the pandemic. On the other hand, due to the uncertainty of the situation, human experts' supervision would always be required to double check the decision making of these models highlighting the importance of interpretability. In the light of these challenges, this study proposes an interpretable self-supervised multi-task learning model to jointly and effectively tackle the tasks of information retrieval (IR) and extraction (IE) during the current emergency health crisis situation. Our results show that our model effectively leverage the multi-task and self-supervised learning to improve generalization, data efficiency and robustness to the ongoing dataset shift problem. Our model outperforms baselines in IE and IR tasks, respectively by micro-f score of 0.08 (LCA-F score of 0.05), and MAP of 0.05 on average. In IE the zero- and few-shot learning performances are on average 0.32 and 0.19 micro-f score higher than those of the baselines.

  

Topological Data Analysis in Text Classification: Extracting Features with Additive Information

Mar 29, 2020
Shafie Gholizadeh, Ketki Savle, Armin Seyeditabari, Wlodek Zadrozny

While the strength of Topological Data Analysis has been explored in many studies on high dimensional numeric data, it is still a challenging task to apply it to text. As the primary goal in topological data analysis is to define and quantify the shapes in numeric data, defining shapes in the text is much more challenging, even though the geometries of vector spaces and conceptual spaces are clearly relevant for information retrieval and semantics. In this paper, we examine two different methods of extraction of topological features from text, using as the underlying representations of words the two most popular methods, namely word embeddings and TF-IDF vectors. To extract topological features from the word embedding space, we interpret the embedding of a text document as high dimensional time series, and we analyze the topology of the underlying graph where the vertices correspond to different embedding dimensions. For topological data analysis with the TF-IDF representations, we analyze the topology of the graph whose vertices come from the TF-IDF vectors of different blocks in the textual document. In both cases, we apply homological persistence to reveal the geometric structures under different distance resolutions. Our results show that these topological features carry some exclusive information that is not captured by conventional text mining methods. In our experiments we observe adding topological features to the conventional features in ensemble models improves the classification results (up to 5\%). On the other hand, as expected, topological features by themselves may be not sufficient for effective classification. It is an open problem to see whether TDA features from word embeddings might be sufficient, as they seem to perform within a range of few points from top results obtained with a linear support vector classifier.

  

Model Reduction of Shallow CNN Model for Reliable Deployment of Information Extraction from Medical Reports

Jul 31, 2020
Abhishek K Dubey, Alina Peluso, Jacob Hinkle, Devanshu Agarawal, Zilong Tan

Shallow Convolution Neural Network (CNN) is a time-tested tool for the information extraction from cancer pathology reports. Shallow CNN performs competitively on this task to other deep learning models including BERT, which holds the state-of-the-art for many NLP tasks. The main insight behind this eccentric phenomenon is that the information extraction from cancer pathology reports require only a small number of domain-specific text segments to perform the task, thus making the most of the texts and contexts excessive for the task. Shallow CNN model is well-suited to identify these key short text segments from the labeled training set; however, the identified text segments remain obscure to humans. In this study, we fill this gap by developing a model reduction tool to make a reliable connection between CNN filters and relevant text segments by discarding the spurious connections. We reduce the complexity of shallow CNN representation by approximating it with a linear transformation of n-gram presence representation with a non-negativity and sparsity prior on the transformation weights to obtain an interpretable model. Our approach bridge the gap between the conventionally perceived trade-off boundary between accuracy on the one side and explainability on the other by model reduction.

  
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