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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

Event Coreference Resolution via a Multi-loss Neural Network without Using Argument Information

Sep 22, 2020
Xinyu Zuo, Yubo Chen, Kang Liu, Jun Zhao

Event coreference resolution(ECR) is an important task in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and nearly all the existing approaches to this task rely on event argument information. However, these methods tend to suffer from error propagation from the stage of event argument extraction. Besides, not every event mention contains all arguments of an event, and argument information may confuse the model that events have arguments to detect event coreference in real text. Furthermore, the context information of an event is useful to infer the coreference between events. Thus, in order to reduce the errors propagated from event argument extraction and use context information effectively, we propose a multi-loss neural network model that does not need any argument information to do the within-document event coreference resolution task and achieve a significant performance than the state-of-the-art methods.

* SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62, Issue 11:212101(2019) 
* Published on SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences 
  

Building Extraction at Scale using Convolutional Neural Network: Mapping of the United States

May 23, 2018
Hsiuhan Lexie Yang, Jiangye Yuan, Dalton Lunga, Melanie Laverdiere, Amy Rose, Budhendra Bhaduri

Establishing up-to-date large scale building maps is essential to understand urban dynamics, such as estimating population, urban planning and many other applications. Although many computer vision tasks has been successfully carried out with deep convolutional neural networks, there is a growing need to understand their large scale impact on building mapping with remote sensing imagery. Taking advantage of the scalability of CNNs and using only few areas with the abundance of building footprints, for the first time we conduct a comparative analysis of four state-of-the-art CNNs for extracting building footprints across the entire continental United States. The four CNN architectures namely: branch-out CNN, fully convolutional neural network (FCN), conditional random field as recurrent neural network (CRFasRNN), and SegNet, support semantic pixel-wise labeling and focus on capturing textural information at multi-scale. We use 1-meter resolution aerial images from National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) as the test-bed, and compare the extraction results across the four methods. In addition, we propose to combine signed-distance labels with SegNet, the preferred CNN architecture identified by our extensive evaluations, to advance building extraction results to instance level. We further demonstrate the usefulness of fusing additional near IR information into the building extraction framework. Large scale experimental evaluations are conducted and reported using metrics that include: precision, recall rate, intersection over union, and the number of buildings extracted. With the improved CNN model and no requirement of further post-processing, we have generated building maps for the United States. The quality of extracted buildings and processing time demonstrated the proposed CNN-based framework fits the need of building extraction at scale.

* Accepted by IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 
  

A Hierarchical Approach for Joint Multi-view Object Pose Estimation and Categorization

Mar 04, 2015
Mete Ozay, Krzysztof Walas, Ales Leonardis

We propose a joint object pose estimation and categorization approach which extracts information about object poses and categories from the object parts and compositions constructed at different layers of a hierarchical object representation algorithm, namely Learned Hierarchy of Parts (LHOP). In the proposed approach, we first employ the LHOP to learn hierarchical part libraries which represent entity parts and compositions across different object categories and views. Then, we extract statistical and geometric features from the part realizations of the objects in the images in order to represent the information about object pose and category at each different layer of the hierarchy. Unlike the traditional approaches which consider specific layers of the hierarchies in order to extract information to perform specific tasks, we combine the information extracted at different layers to solve a joint object pose estimation and categorization problem using distributed optimization algorithms. We examine the proposed generative-discriminative learning approach and the algorithms on two benchmark 2-D multi-view image datasets. The proposed approach and the algorithms outperform state-of-the-art classification, regression and feature extraction algorithms. In addition, the experimental results shed light on the relationship between object categorization, pose estimation and the part realizations observed at different layers of the hierarchy.

* Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 5480 - 5487, Hong Kong, 2014 
* 7 Figures 
  

Continuous-Time Relationship Prediction in Dynamic Heterogeneous Information Networks

Oct 08, 2018
Sina Sajadmanesh, Sogol Bazargani, Jiawei Zhang, Hamid R. Rabiee

Online social networks, World Wide Web, media and technological networks, and other types of so-called information networks are ubiquitous nowadays. These information networks are inherently heterogeneous and dynamic. They are heterogeneous as they consist of multi-typed objects and relations, and they are dynamic as they are constantly evolving over time. One of the challenging issues in such heterogeneous and dynamic environments is to forecast those relationships in the network that will appear in the future. In this paper, we try to solve the problem of continuous-time relationship prediction in dynamic and heterogeneous information networks. This implies predicting the time it takes for a relationship to appear in the future, given its features that have been extracted by considering both heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of the underlying network. To this end, we first introduce a feature extraction framework that combines the power of meta-path-based modeling and recurrent neural networks to effectively extract features suitable for relationship prediction regarding heterogeneity and dynamicity of the networks. Next, we propose a supervised non-parametric approach, called Non-Parametric Generalized Linear Model (NP-GLM), which infers the hidden underlying probability distribution of the relationship building time given its features. We then present a learning algorithm to train NP-GLM and an inference method to answer time-related queries. Extensive experiments conducted on synthetic data and three real-world datasets, namely Delicious, MovieLens, and DBLP, demonstrate the effectiveness of NP-GLM in solving continuous-time relationship prediction problem vis-a-vis competitive baselines

* Submitted to ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1706.06783 
  

A Probabilistic Model with Commonsense Constraints for Pattern-based Temporal Fact Extraction

Jun 11, 2020
Yang Zhou, Tong Zhao, Meng Jiang

Textual patterns (e.g., Country's president Person) are specified and/or generated for extracting factual information from unstructured data. Pattern-based information extraction methods have been recognized for their efficiency and transferability. However, not every pattern is reliable: A major challenge is to derive the most complete and accurate facts from diverse and sometimes conflicting extractions. In this work, we propose a probabilistic graphical model which formulates fact extraction in a generative process. It automatically infers true facts and pattern reliability without any supervision. It has two novel designs specially for temporal facts: (1) it models pattern reliability on two types of time signals, including temporal tag in text and text generation time; (2) it models commonsense constraints as observable variables. Experimental results demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms existing methods on extracting true temporal facts from news data.

* 7 pages, 1 figure 
  

Auto-context Convolutional Neural Network (Auto-Net) for Brain Extraction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Jun 19, 2017
Seyed Sadegh Mohseni Salehi, Deniz Erdogmus, Ali Gholipour

Brain extraction or whole brain segmentation is an important first step in many of the neuroimage analysis pipelines. The accuracy and robustness of brain extraction, therefore, is crucial for the accuracy of the entire brain analysis process. With the aim of designing a learning-based, geometry-independent and registration-free brain extraction tool in this study, we present a technique based on an auto-context convolutional neural network (CNN), in which intrinsic local and global image features are learned through 2D patches of different window sizes. In this architecture three parallel 2D convolutional pathways for three different directions (axial, coronal, and sagittal) implicitly learn 3D image information without the need for computationally expensive 3D convolutions. Posterior probability maps generated by the network are used iteratively as context information along with the original image patches to learn the local shape and connectedness of the brain, to extract it from non-brain tissue. The brain extraction results we have obtained from our algorithm are superior to the recently reported results in the literature on two publicly available benchmark datasets, namely LPBA40 and OASIS, in which we obtained Dice overlap coefficients of 97.42% and 95.40%, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of our algorithm in the challenging problem of extracting arbitrarily-oriented fetal brains in reconstructed fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. In this application our algorithm performed much better than the other methods (Dice coefficient: 95.98%), where the other methods performed poorly due to the non-standard orientation and geometry of the fetal brain in MRI. Our CNN-based method can provide accurate, geometry-independent brain extraction in challenging applications.

* This manuscripts has been submitted to TMI 
  

Aerial Images Meet Crowdsourced Trajectories: A New Approach to Robust Road Extraction

Nov 30, 2021
Lingbo Liu, Zewei Yang, Guanbin Li, Kuo Wang, Tianshui Chen, Liang Lin

Land remote sensing analysis is a crucial research in earth science. In this work, we focus on a challenging task of land analysis, i.e., automatic extraction of traffic roads from remote sensing data, which has widespread applications in urban development and expansion estimation. Nevertheless, conventional methods either only utilized the limited information of aerial images, or simply fused multimodal information (e.g., vehicle trajectories), thus cannot well recognize unconstrained roads. To facilitate this problem, we introduce a novel neural network framework termed Cross-Modal Message Propagation Network (CMMPNet), which fully benefits the complementary different modal data (i.e., aerial images and crowdsourced trajectories). Specifically, CMMPNet is composed of two deep Auto-Encoders for modality-specific representation learning and a tailor-designed Dual Enhancement Module for cross-modal representation refinement. In particular, the complementary information of each modality is comprehensively extracted and dynamically propagated to enhance the representation of another modality. Extensive experiments on three real-world benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our CMMPNet for robust road extraction benefiting from blending different modal data, either using image and trajectory data or image and Lidar data. From the experimental results, we observe that the proposed approach outperforms current state-of-the-art methods by large margins.

  

Event Argument Extraction using Causal Knowledge Structures

May 02, 2021
Debanjana Kar, Sudeshna Sarkar, Pawan Goyal

Event Argument extraction refers to the task of extracting structured information from unstructured text for a particular event of interest. The existing works exhibit poor capabilities to extract causal event arguments like Reason and After Effects. Furthermore, most of the existing works model this task at a sentence level, restricting the context to a local scope. While it may be effective for short spans of text, for longer bodies of text such as news articles, it has often been observed that the arguments for an event do not necessarily occur in the same sentence as that containing an event trigger. To tackle the issue of argument scattering across sentences, the use of global context becomes imperative in this task. In our work, we propose an external knowledge aided approach to infuse document-level event information to aid the extraction of complex event arguments. We develop a causal network for our event-annotated dataset by extracting relevant event causal structures from ConceptNet and phrases from Wikipedia. We use the extracted event causal features in a bi-directional transformer encoder to effectively capture long-range inter-sentence dependencies. We report the effectiveness of our proposed approach through both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In this task, we establish our findings on an event annotated dataset in 5 Indian languages. This dataset adds further complexity to the task by labelling arguments of entity type (like Time, Place) as well as more complex argument types (like Reason, After-Effect). Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance across all the five languages. Since our work does not rely on any language-specific features, it can be easily extended to other languages.

* 10 pages, 6 figures, Accepted in 17th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON 2020) 
  

STIP: A SpatioTemporal Information-Preserving and Perception-Augmented Model for High-Resolution Video Prediction

Jun 09, 2022
Zheng Chang, Xinfeng Zhang, Shanshe Wang, Siwei Ma, Wen Gao

Although significant achievements have been achieved by recurrent neural network (RNN) based video prediction methods, their performance in datasets with high resolutions is still far from satisfactory because of the information loss problem and the perception-insensitive mean square error (MSE) based loss functions. In this paper, we propose a Spatiotemporal Information-Preserving and Perception-Augmented Model (STIP) to solve the above two problems. To solve the information loss problem, the proposed model aims to preserve the spatiotemporal information for videos during the feature extraction and the state transitions, respectively. Firstly, a Multi-Grained Spatiotemporal Auto-Encoder (MGST-AE) is designed based on the X-Net structure. The proposed MGST-AE can help the decoders recall multi-grained information from the encoders in both the temporal and spatial domains. In this way, more spatiotemporal information can be preserved during the feature extraction for high-resolution videos. Secondly, a Spatiotemporal Gated Recurrent Unit (STGRU) is designed based on the standard Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) structure, which can efficiently preserve spatiotemporal information during the state transitions. The proposed STGRU can achieve more satisfactory performance with a much lower computation load compared with the popular Long Short-Term (LSTM) based predictive memories. Furthermore, to improve the traditional MSE loss functions, a Learned Perceptual Loss (LP-loss) is further designed based on the Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), which can help obtain a satisfactory trade-off between the objective quality and the perceptual quality. Experimental results show that the proposed STIP can predict videos with more satisfactory visual quality compared with a variety of state-of-the-art methods. Source code has been available at \url{https://github.com/ZhengChang467/STIPHR}.

* This journal paper is extended from our previous work accepted in CVPR2022 and has been submitted to IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 
  

Semantic Feature Extraction for Generalized Zero-shot Learning

Dec 29, 2021
Junhan Kim, Kyuhong Shim, Byonghyo Shim

Generalized zero-shot learning (GZSL) is a technique to train a deep learning model to identify unseen classes using the attribute. In this paper, we put forth a new GZSL technique that improves the GZSL classification performance greatly. Key idea of the proposed approach, henceforth referred to as semantic feature extraction-based GZSL (SE-GZSL), is to use the semantic feature containing only attribute-related information in learning the relationship between the image and the attribute. In doing so, we can remove the interference, if any, caused by the attribute-irrelevant information contained in the image feature. To train a network extracting the semantic feature, we present two novel loss functions, 1) mutual information-based loss to capture all the attribute-related information in the image feature and 2) similarity-based loss to remove unwanted attribute-irrelevant information. From extensive experiments using various datasets, we show that the proposed SE-GZSL technique outperforms conventional GZSL approaches by a large margin.

* Accepted at AAAI2022 
  
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