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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

Probabilistic feature extraction, dose statistic prediction and dose mimicking for automated radiation therapy treatment planning

Feb 24, 2021
Tianfang Zhang, Rasmus Bokrantz, Jimmy Olsson

Purpose: We propose a general framework for quantifying predictive uncertainties of dose-related quantities and leveraging this information in a dose mimicking problem in the context of automated radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods: A three-step pipeline, comprising feature extraction, dose statistic prediction and dose mimicking, is employed. In particular, the features are produced by a convolutional variational autoencoder and used as inputs in a previously developed nonparametric Bayesian statistical method, estimating the multivariate predictive distribution of a collection of predefined dose statistics. Specially developed objective functions are then used to construct a dose mimicking problem based on the produced distributions, creating deliverable treatment plans. Results: The numerical experiments are performed using a dataset of 94 retrospective treatment plans of prostate cancer patients. We show that the features extracted by the variational autoencoder captures geometric information of substantial relevance to the dose statistic prediction problem, that the estimated predictive distributions are reasonable and outperforms a benchmark method, and that the deliverable plans agree well with their clinical counterparts. Conclusions: We demonstrate that prediction of dose-related quantities may be extended to include uncertainty estimation and that such probabilistic information may be leveraged in a dose mimicking problem. The treatment plans produced by the proposed pipeline resemble their original counterparts well, illustrating the merits of a holistic approach to automated planning based on probabilistic modeling.

  
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Temporal Feature Alignment and Mutual Information Maximization for Video-Based Human Pose Estimation

Apr 03, 2022
Zhenguang Liu, Runyang Feng, Haoming Chen, Shuang Wu, Yixing Gao, Yunjun Gao, Xiang Wang

Multi-frame human pose estimation has long been a compelling and fundamental problem in computer vision. This task is challenging due to fast motion and pose occlusion that frequently occur in videos. State-of-the-art methods strive to incorporate additional visual evidences from neighboring frames (supporting frames) to facilitate the pose estimation of the current frame (key frame). One aspect that has been obviated so far, is the fact that current methods directly aggregate unaligned contexts across frames. The spatial-misalignment between pose features of the current frame and neighboring frames might lead to unsatisfactory results. More importantly, existing approaches build upon the straightforward pose estimation loss, which unfortunately cannot constrain the network to fully leverage useful information from neighboring frames. To tackle these problems, we present a novel hierarchical alignment framework, which leverages coarse-to-fine deformations to progressively update a neighboring frame to align with the current frame at the feature level. We further propose to explicitly supervise the knowledge extraction from neighboring frames, guaranteeing that useful complementary cues are extracted. To achieve this goal, we theoretically analyzed the mutual information between the frames and arrived at a loss that maximizes the task-relevant mutual information. These allow us to rank No.1 in the Multi-frame Person Pose Estimation Challenge on benchmark dataset PoseTrack2017, and obtain state-of-the-art performance on benchmarks Sub-JHMDB and Pose-Track2018. Our code is released at https://github. com/Pose-Group/FAMI-Pose, hoping that it will be useful to the community.

* This paper is accepted to CVPR2022 (ORAL presentation) 
  
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Boundary Regularized Building Footprint Extraction From Satellite Images Using Deep Neural Network

Jun 23, 2020
Kang Zhao, Muhammad Kamran, Gunho Sohn

In recent years, an ever-increasing number of remote satellites are orbiting the Earth which streams vast amount of visual data to support a wide range of civil, public and military applications. One of the key information obtained from satellite imagery is to produce and update spatial maps of built environment due to its wide coverage with high resolution data. However, reconstructing spatial maps from satellite imagery is not a trivial vision task as it requires reconstructing a scene or object with high-level representation such as primitives. For the last decade, significant advancement in object detection and representation using visual data has been achieved, but the primitive-based object representation still remains as a challenging vision task. Thus, a high-quality spatial map is mainly produced through complex labour-intensive processes. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural network, which enables to jointly detect building instance and regularize noisy building boundary shapes from a single satellite imagery. The proposed deep learning method consists of a two-stage object detection network to produce region of interest (RoI) features and a building boundary extraction network using graph models to learn geometric information of the polygon shapes. Extensive experiments show that our model can accomplish multi-tasks of object localization, recognition, semantic labelling and geometric shape extraction simultaneously. In terms of building extraction accuracy, computation efficiency and boundary regularization performance, our model outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline models.

  
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Tag, Copy or Predict: A Unified Weakly-Supervised Learning Framework for Visual Information Extraction using Sequences

Jun 20, 2021
Jiapeng Wang, Tianwei Wang, Guozhi Tang, Lianwen Jin, Weihong Ma, Kai Ding, Yichao Huang

Visual information extraction (VIE) has attracted increasing attention in recent years. The existing methods usually first organized optical character recognition (OCR) results into plain texts and then utilized token-level entity annotations as supervision to train a sequence tagging model. However, it expends great annotation costs and may be exposed to label confusion, and the OCR errors will also significantly affect the final performance. In this paper, we propose a unified weakly-supervised learning framework called TCPN (Tag, Copy or Predict Network), which introduces 1) an efficient encoder to simultaneously model the semantic and layout information in 2D OCR results; 2) a weakly-supervised training strategy that utilizes only key information sequences as supervision; and 3) a flexible and switchable decoder which contains two inference modes: one (Copy or Predict Mode) is to output key information sequences of different categories by copying a token from the input or predicting one in each time step, and the other (Tag Mode) is to directly tag the input sequence in a single forward pass. Our method shows new state-of-the-art performance on several public benchmarks, which fully proves its effectiveness.

* IJCAI2021 
  
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Parts-of-Speech Tagger Errors Do Not Necessarily Degrade Accuracy in Extracting Information from Biomedical Text

Apr 02, 2008
Maurice HT Ling, Christophe Lefevre, Kevin R. Nicholas

A recent study reported development of Muscorian, a generic text processing tool for extracting protein-protein interactions from text that achieved comparable performance to biomedical-specific text processing tools. This result was unexpected since potential errors from a series of text analysis processes is likely to adversely affect the outcome of the entire process. Most biomedical entity relationship extraction tools have used biomedical-specific parts-of-speech (POS) tagger as errors in POS tagging and are likely to affect subsequent semantic analysis of the text, such as shallow parsing. This study aims to evaluate the parts-of-speech (POS) tagging accuracy and attempts to explore whether a comparable performance is obtained when a generic POS tagger, MontyTagger, was used in place of MedPost, a tagger trained in biomedical text. Our results demonstrated that MontyTagger, Muscorian's POS tagger, has a POS tagging accuracy of 83.1% when tested on biomedical text. Replacing MontyTagger with MedPost did not result in a significant improvement in entity relationship extraction from text; precision of 55.6% from MontyTagger versus 56.8% from MedPost on directional relationships and 86.1% from MontyTagger compared to 81.8% from MedPost on nondirectional relationships. This is unexpected as the potential for poor POS tagging by MontyTagger is likely to affect the outcome of the information extraction. An analysis of POS tagging errors demonstrated that 78.5% of tagging errors are being compensated by shallow parsing. Thus, despite 83.1% tagging accuracy, MontyTagger has a functional tagging accuracy of 94.6%.

* Ling, Maurice HT, Lefevre, Christophe, Nicholas, Kevin R. 2008. Parts-of-Speech Tagger Errors Do Not Necessarily Degrade Accuracy in Extracting Information from Biomedical Text. The Python Papers 3 (1): 65-80 
  
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Voice Information Retrieval In Collaborative Information Seeking

Oct 05, 2021
Sulaiman Adesegun Kukoyi, O. F. W Onifade, Kamorudeen A. Amuda

Voice information retrieval is a technique that provides Information Retrieval System with the capacity to transcribe spoken queries and use the text output for information search. CIS is a field of research that involves studying the situation, motivations, and methods for people working in a collaborative group for information seeking projects, as well as building a system for supporting such activities. Humans find it easier to communicate and express ideas via speech. Existing voice search like Google and other mainstream voice search does not support collaborative search. The spoken speeches passed through the ASR for feature extraction using MFCC and HMM, Viterbi algorithm precisely for pattern matching. The result of the ASR is then passed as input into CIS System, results is then filtered to have an aggregate result. The result from the simulation shows that our model was able to achieve 81.25% transcription accuracy.

  
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Unsupervised Technical Domain Terms Extraction using Term Extractor

Jan 22, 2021
Suman Dowlagar, Radhika Mamidi

Terminology extraction, also known as term extraction, is a subtask of information extraction. The goal of terminology extraction is to extract relevant words or phrases from a given corpus automatically. This paper focuses on the unsupervised automated domain term extraction method that considers chunking, preprocessing, and ranking domain-specific terms using relevance and cohesion functions for ICON 2020 shared task 2: TermTraction.

  
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Meta-data Study in Autism Spectrum Disorder Classification Based on Structural MRI

Jun 09, 2022
Ruimin Ma, Yanlin Wang, Yanjie Wei, Yi Pan

Accurate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on neuroimaging data has significant implications, as extracting useful information from neuroimaging data for ASD detection is challenging. Even though machine learning techniques have been leveraged to improve the information extraction from neuroimaging data, the varying data quality caused by different meta-data conditions (i.e., data collection strategies) limits the effective information that can be extracted, thus leading to data-dependent predictive accuracies in ASD detection, which can be worse than random guess in some cases. In this work, we systematically investigate the impact of three kinds of meta-data on the predictive accuracy of classifying ASD based on structural MRI collected from 20 different sites, where meta-data conditions vary.

  
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Identifying Offensive Expressions of Opinion in Context

Apr 27, 2021
Francielle Alves Vargas, Isabelle Carvalho, Fabiana Rodrigues de Góes

Classic information extraction techniques consist in building questions and answers about the facts. Indeed, it is still a challenge to subjective information extraction systems to identify opinions and feelings in context. In sentiment-based NLP tasks, there are few resources to information extraction, above all offensive or hateful opinions in context. To fill this important gap, this short paper provides a new cross-lingual and contextual offensive lexicon, which consists of explicit and implicit offensive and swearing expressions of opinion, which were annotated in two different classes: context dependent and context-independent offensive. In addition, we provide markers to identify hate speech. Annotation approach was evaluated at the expression-level and achieves high human inter-annotator agreement. The provided offensive lexicon is available in Portuguese and English languages.

  
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