Reverse-engineering bar charts extracts textual and numeric information from the visual representations of bar charts to support application scenarios that require the underlying information. In this paper, we propose a neural network-based method for reverse-engineering bar charts. We adopt a neural network-based object detection model to simultaneously localize and classify textual information. This approach improves the efficiency of textual information extraction. We design an encoder-decoder framework that integrates convolutional and recurrent neural networks to extract numeric information. We further introduce an attention mechanism into the framework to achieve high accuracy and robustness. Synthetic and real-world datasets are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the method. To the best of our knowledge, this work takes the lead in constructing a complete neural network-based method of reverse-engineering bar charts.
In many documents, such as semi-structured webpages, textual semantics are augmented with additional information conveyed using visual elements including layout, font size, and color. Prior work on information extraction from semi-structured websites has required learning an extraction model specific to a given template via either manually labeled or distantly supervised data from that template. In this work, we propose a solution for "zero-shot" open-domain relation extraction from webpages with a previously unseen template, including from websites with little overlap with existing sources of knowledge for distant supervision and websites in entirely new subject verticals. Our model uses a graph neural network-based approach to build a rich representation of text fields on a webpage and the relationships between them, enabling generalization to new templates. Experiments show this approach provides a 31% F1 gain over a baseline for zero-shot extraction in a new subject vertical.
We propose in this paper a combined model of Long Short Term Memory and Convolutional Neural Networks (LSTM-CNN) that exploits word embeddings and positional embeddings for cross-sentence n-ary relation extraction. The proposed model brings together the properties of both LSTMs and CNNs, to simultaneously exploit long-range sequential information and capture most informative features, essential for cross-sentence n-ary relation extraction. The LSTM-CNN model is evaluated on standard dataset on cross-sentence n-ary relation extraction, where it significantly outperforms baselines such as CNNs, LSTMs and also a combined CNN-LSTM model. The paper also shows that the LSTM-CNN model outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods on cross-sentence n-ary relation extraction.
Vast amounts of text on the Web are unstructured and ungrammatical, such as classified ads, auction listings, forum postings, etc. We call such text "posts." Despite their inconsistent structure and lack of grammar, posts are full of useful information. This paper presents work on semi-automatically building tables of relational information, called "reference sets," by analyzing such posts directly. Reference sets can be applied to a number of tasks such as ontology maintenance and information extraction. Our reference-set construction method starts with just a small amount of background knowledge, and constructs tuples representing the entities in the posts to form a reference set. We also describe an extension to this approach for the special case where even this small amount of background knowledge is impossible to discover and use. To evaluate the utility of the machine-constructed reference sets, we compare them to manually constructed reference sets in the context of reference-set-based information extraction. Our results show the reference sets constructed by our method outperform manually constructed reference sets. We also compare the reference-set-based extraction approach using the machine-constructed reference set to supervised extraction approaches using generic features. These results demonstrate that using machine-constructed reference sets outperforms the supervised methods, even though the supervised methods require training data.
Automated audio captioning (AAC) aims to describe audio data with captions using natural language. Most existing AAC methods adopt an encoder-decoder structure, where the attention based mechanism is a popular choice in the decoder (e.g., Transformer decoder) for predicting captions from audio features. Such attention based decoders can capture the global information from the audio features, however, their ability in extracting local information can be limited, which may lead to degraded quality in the generated captions. In this paper, we present an AAC method with an attention-free decoder, where an encoder based on PANNs is employed for audio feature extraction, and the attention-free decoder is designed to introduce local information. The proposed method enables the effective use of both global and local information from audio signals. Experiments show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with the standard attention based decoder in Task 6 of the DCASE 2021 Challenge.
The best evidence concerning comparative treatment effectiveness comes from clinical trials, the results of which are reported in unstructured articles. Medical experts must manually extract information from articles to inform decision-making, which is time-consuming and expensive. Here we consider the end-to-end task of both (a) extracting treatments and outcomes from full-text articles describing clinical trials (entity identification) and, (b) inferring the reported results for the former with respect to the latter (relation extraction). We introduce new data for this task, and evaluate models that have recently achieved state-of-the-art results on similar tasks in Natural Language Processing. We then propose a new method motivated by how trial results are typically presented that outperforms these purely data-driven baselines. Finally, we run a fielded evaluation of the model with a non-profit seeking to identify existing drugs that might be re-purposed for cancer, showing the potential utility of end-to-end evidence extraction systems.
Document-level event extraction is important for indexing the most important information in a document to facilitate downstream tasks such as information retrieval or question answering. However, it is a challenging task because it requires the understanding of event and entity coreference, and capturing arguments that span across different sentences. Existing works on event extraction generally confine on extracting events from single sentences, which fail to capture the relationships between the event mentions at the scale of a document, as well as the event arguments that appear in a different sentence than the event trigger. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end model leveraging Deep Value Networks (DVN), a structured prediction algorithm, to efficiently capture cross-event dependencies for document-level event extraction. Experimental results show that our approach achieves comparable performance to CRF-based model on ACE05, while enjoys significantly higher efficiency.
Open Information Extraction (OIE) is the task of the unsupervised creation of structured information from text. OIE is often used as a starting point for a number of downstream tasks including knowledge base construction, relation extraction, and question answering. While OIE methods are targeted at being domain independent, they have been evaluated primarily on newspaper, encyclopedic or general web text. In this article, we evaluate the performance of OIE on scientific texts originating from 10 different disciplines. To do so, we use two state-of-the-art OIE systems applying a crowd-sourcing approach. We find that OIE systems perform significantly worse on scientific text than encyclopedic text. We also provide an error analysis and suggest areas of work to reduce errors. Our corpus of sentences and judgments are made available.
Towards real-world information extraction scenario, research of relation extraction is advancing to document-level relation extraction(DocRE). Existing approaches for DocRE aim to extract relation by encoding various information sources in the long context by novel model architectures. However, the inherent long-tailed distribution problem of DocRE is overlooked by prior work. We argue that mitigating the long-tailed distribution problem is crucial for DocRE in the real-world scenario. Motivated by the long-tailed distribution problem, we propose an Easy Relation Augmentation(ERA) method for improving DocRE by enhancing the performance of tailed relations. In addition, we further propose a novel contrastive learning framework based on our ERA, i.e., ERACL, which can further improve the model performance on tailed relations and achieve competitive overall DocRE performance compared to the state-of-arts.
Automatically extracting the relationships between chemicals and diseases is significantly important to various areas of biomedical research and health care. Biomedical experts have built many large-scale knowledge bases (KBs) to advance the development of biomedical research. KBs contain huge amounts of structured information about entities and relationships, therefore plays a pivotal role in chemical-disease relation (CDR) extraction. However, previous researches pay less attention to the prior knowledge existing in KBs. This paper proposes a neural network-based attention model (NAM) for CDR extraction, which makes full use of context information in documents and prior knowledge in KBs. For a pair of entities in a document, an attention mechanism is employed to select important context words with respect to the relation representations learned from KBs. Experiments on the BioCreative V CDR dataset show that combining context and knowledge representations through the attention mechanism, could significantly improve the CDR extraction performance while achieve comparable results with state-of-the-art systems.