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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

Aerial Images Meet Crowdsourced Trajectories: A New Approach to Robust Road Extraction

Nov 30, 2021
Lingbo Liu, Zewei Yang, Guanbin Li, Kuo Wang, Tianshui Chen, Liang Lin

Land remote sensing analysis is a crucial research in earth science. In this work, we focus on a challenging task of land analysis, i.e., automatic extraction of traffic roads from remote sensing data, which has widespread applications in urban development and expansion estimation. Nevertheless, conventional methods either only utilized the limited information of aerial images, or simply fused multimodal information (e.g., vehicle trajectories), thus cannot well recognize unconstrained roads. To facilitate this problem, we introduce a novel neural network framework termed Cross-Modal Message Propagation Network (CMMPNet), which fully benefits the complementary different modal data (i.e., aerial images and crowdsourced trajectories). Specifically, CMMPNet is composed of two deep Auto-Encoders for modality-specific representation learning and a tailor-designed Dual Enhancement Module for cross-modal representation refinement. In particular, the complementary information of each modality is comprehensively extracted and dynamically propagated to enhance the representation of another modality. Extensive experiments on three real-world benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our CMMPNet for robust road extraction benefiting from blending different modal data, either using image and trajectory data or image and Lidar data. From the experimental results, we observe that the proposed approach outperforms current state-of-the-art methods by large margins.

  
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Event Argument Extraction using Causal Knowledge Structures

May 02, 2021
Debanjana Kar, Sudeshna Sarkar, Pawan Goyal

Event Argument extraction refers to the task of extracting structured information from unstructured text for a particular event of interest. The existing works exhibit poor capabilities to extract causal event arguments like Reason and After Effects. Furthermore, most of the existing works model this task at a sentence level, restricting the context to a local scope. While it may be effective for short spans of text, for longer bodies of text such as news articles, it has often been observed that the arguments for an event do not necessarily occur in the same sentence as that containing an event trigger. To tackle the issue of argument scattering across sentences, the use of global context becomes imperative in this task. In our work, we propose an external knowledge aided approach to infuse document-level event information to aid the extraction of complex event arguments. We develop a causal network for our event-annotated dataset by extracting relevant event causal structures from ConceptNet and phrases from Wikipedia. We use the extracted event causal features in a bi-directional transformer encoder to effectively capture long-range inter-sentence dependencies. We report the effectiveness of our proposed approach through both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In this task, we establish our findings on an event annotated dataset in 5 Indian languages. This dataset adds further complexity to the task by labelling arguments of entity type (like Time, Place) as well as more complex argument types (like Reason, After-Effect). Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance across all the five languages. Since our work does not rely on any language-specific features, it can be easily extended to other languages.

* 10 pages, 6 figures, Accepted in 17th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON 2020) 
  
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STIP: A SpatioTemporal Information-Preserving and Perception-Augmented Model for High-Resolution Video Prediction

Jun 09, 2022
Zheng Chang, Xinfeng Zhang, Shanshe Wang, Siwei Ma, Wen Gao

Although significant achievements have been achieved by recurrent neural network (RNN) based video prediction methods, their performance in datasets with high resolutions is still far from satisfactory because of the information loss problem and the perception-insensitive mean square error (MSE) based loss functions. In this paper, we propose a Spatiotemporal Information-Preserving and Perception-Augmented Model (STIP) to solve the above two problems. To solve the information loss problem, the proposed model aims to preserve the spatiotemporal information for videos during the feature extraction and the state transitions, respectively. Firstly, a Multi-Grained Spatiotemporal Auto-Encoder (MGST-AE) is designed based on the X-Net structure. The proposed MGST-AE can help the decoders recall multi-grained information from the encoders in both the temporal and spatial domains. In this way, more spatiotemporal information can be preserved during the feature extraction for high-resolution videos. Secondly, a Spatiotemporal Gated Recurrent Unit (STGRU) is designed based on the standard Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) structure, which can efficiently preserve spatiotemporal information during the state transitions. The proposed STGRU can achieve more satisfactory performance with a much lower computation load compared with the popular Long Short-Term (LSTM) based predictive memories. Furthermore, to improve the traditional MSE loss functions, a Learned Perceptual Loss (LP-loss) is further designed based on the Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), which can help obtain a satisfactory trade-off between the objective quality and the perceptual quality. Experimental results show that the proposed STIP can predict videos with more satisfactory visual quality compared with a variety of state-of-the-art methods. Source code has been available at \url{https://github.com/ZhengChang467/STIPHR}.

* This journal paper is extended from our previous work accepted in CVPR2022 and has been submitted to IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 
  
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Semantic Feature Extraction for Generalized Zero-shot Learning

Dec 29, 2021
Junhan Kim, Kyuhong Shim, Byonghyo Shim

Generalized zero-shot learning (GZSL) is a technique to train a deep learning model to identify unseen classes using the attribute. In this paper, we put forth a new GZSL technique that improves the GZSL classification performance greatly. Key idea of the proposed approach, henceforth referred to as semantic feature extraction-based GZSL (SE-GZSL), is to use the semantic feature containing only attribute-related information in learning the relationship between the image and the attribute. In doing so, we can remove the interference, if any, caused by the attribute-irrelevant information contained in the image feature. To train a network extracting the semantic feature, we present two novel loss functions, 1) mutual information-based loss to capture all the attribute-related information in the image feature and 2) similarity-based loss to remove unwanted attribute-irrelevant information. From extensive experiments using various datasets, we show that the proposed SE-GZSL technique outperforms conventional GZSL approaches by a large margin.

* Accepted at AAAI2022 
  
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On Coreferring Text-extracted Event Descriptions with the aid of Ontological Reasoning

Dec 01, 2016
Stefano Borgo, Loris Bozzato, Alessio Palmero Aprosio, Marco Rospocher, Luciano Serafini

Systems for automatic extraction of semantic information about events from large textual resources are now available: these tools are capable to generate RDF datasets about text extracted events and this knowledge can be used to reason over the recognized events. On the other hand, text based tasks for event recognition, as for example event coreference (i.e. recognizing whether two textual descriptions refer to the same event), do not take into account ontological information of the extracted events in their process. In this paper, we propose a method to derive event coreference on text extracted event data using semantic based rule reasoning. We demonstrate our method considering a limited (yet representative) set of event types: we introduce a formal analysis on their ontological properties and, on the base of this, we define a set of coreference criteria. We then implement these criteria as RDF-based reasoning rules to be applied on text extracted event data. We evaluate the effectiveness of our approach over a standard coreference benchmark dataset.

  
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Medication Regimen Extraction From Medical Conversations

Jan 03, 2020
Sai P. Selvaraj, Sandeep Konam

Extracting relevant information from medical conversations and providing it to doctors and patients might help in addressing doctor burnout and patient forgetfulness. In this paper, we focus on extracting the Medication Regimen (dosage and frequency for medications) discussed in a medical conversation. We frame the problem as a Question Answering (QA) task and perform comparative analysis over: a QA approach, a new combined QA and Information Extraction approach, and other baselines. We use a small corpus of 6,692 annotated doctor-patient conversations for the task. Clinical conversation corpora are costly to create, difficult to handle (because of data privacy concerns), and thus scarce. We address this data scarcity challenge through data augmentation methods, using publicly available embeddings and pretrain part of the network on a related task (summarization) to improve the model's performance. Compared to the baseline, our best-performing models improve the dosage and frequency extractions' ROUGE-1 F1 scores from 54.28 and 37.13 to 89.57 and 45.94, respectively. Using our best-performing model, we present the first fully automated system that can extract Medication Regimen tags from spontaneous doctor-patient conversations with about ~71% accuracy.

* To appear in Proceedings of International Workshop on Health Intelligence (W3PHIAI) of the 34th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2020 
  
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Medication Regimen Extraction From Clinical Conversations

Dec 10, 2019
Sai P. Selvaraj, Sandeep Konam

Extracting relevant information from clinical conversations and providing it to doctors and patients might help in addressing doctor burnout and patient forgetfulness. In this paper, we focus on extracting the Medication Regimen (dosage and frequency for medications) discussed in a clinical conversation. We frame the problem as a Question Answering (QA) task and perform comparative analysis over: a QA approach, a new combined QA and Information Extraction approach and other baselines. We use a small corpus of 6,692 annotated doctor-patient conversations for the task. Clinical conversation corpora are costly to create, difficult to handle (because of data privacy concerns), and thus `scarce'. We address this data scarcity challenge through data augmentation methods, using publicly available embeddings and pretrain part of the network on a related task of summarization to improve the model's performance. Compared to the baseline, our best-performing models improve the dosage and frequency extractions' ROUGE-1 F1 scores from 54.28 and 37.13 to 89.57 and 45.94, respectively. Using our best-performing model, we present the first fully automated system that can extract Medication Regimen (MR) tags from spontaneous doctor-patient conversations with about ~71% accuracy.

* To appear in Proceedings of International Workshop on Health Intelligence (W3PHIAI) of the 34th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2020 
  
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ConAM: Confidence Attention Module for Convolutional Neural Networks

Oct 27, 2021
Yu Xue, Ziming Yuan, Ferrante Neri

The so-called ``attention'' is an efficient mechanism to improve the performance of convolutional neural networks. It uses contextual information to recalibrate the input to strengthen the propagation of informative features. However, the majority of the attention mechanisms only consider either local or global contextual information, which is singular to extract features. Moreover, many existing mechanisms directly use the contextual information to recalibrate the input, which unilaterally enhances the propagation of the informative features, but does not suppress the useless ones. This paper proposes a new attention mechanism module based on the correlation between local and global contextual information and we name this correlation as confidence. The novel attention mechanism extracts the local and global contextual information simultaneously, and calculates the confidence between them, then uses this confidence to recalibrate the input pixels. The extraction of local and global contextual information increases the diversity of features. The recalibration with confidence suppresses useless information while enhancing the informative one with fewer parameters. We use CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 in our experiments and explore the performance of our method's components by sufficient ablation studies. Finally, we compare our method with a various state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks and the results show that our method completely surpasses these models. We implement ConAM with the Python library, Pytorch, and the code and models will be publicly available.

  
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Tag-based Semantic Features for Scene Image Classification

Sep 22, 2019
Chiranjibi Sitaula, Yong Xiang, Anish Basnet, Sunil Aryal, Xuequan Lu

The existing image feature extraction methods are primarily based on the content and structure information of images, and rarely consider the contextual semantic information. Regarding some types of images such as scenes and objects, the annotations and descriptions of them available on the web may provide reliable contextual semantic information for feature extraction. In this paper, we introduce novel semantic features of an image based on the annotations and descriptions of its similar images available on the web. Specifically, we propose a new method which consists of two consecutive steps to extract our semantic features. For each image in the training set, we initially search the top $k$ most similar images from the internet and extract their annotations/descriptions (e.g., tags or keywords). The annotation information is employed to design a filter bank for each image category and generate filter words (codebook). Finally, each image is represented by the histogram of the occurrences of filter words in all categories. We evaluate the performance of the proposed features in scene image classification on three commonly-used scene image datasets (i.e., MIT-67, Scene15 and Event8). Our method typically produces a lower feature dimension than existing feature extraction methods. Experimental results show that the proposed features generate better classification accuracies than vision based and tag based features, and comparable results to deep learning based features.

* Accepted by ICONIP2019 conference 
  
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Syntactic-GCN Bert based Chinese Event Extraction

Dec 18, 2021
Jiangwei Liu, Jingshu Zhang, Xiaohong Huang, Liangyu Min

With the rapid development of information technology, online platforms (e.g., news portals and social media) generate enormous web information every moment. Therefore, it is crucial to extract structured representations of events from social streams. Generally, existing event extraction research utilizes pattern matching, machine learning, or deep learning methods to perform event extraction tasks. However, the performance of Chinese event extraction is not as good as English due to the unique characteristics of the Chinese language. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to perform Chinese event extraction. The proposed approach is a multiple channel input neural framework that integrates semantic features and syntactic features. The semantic features are captured by BERT architecture. The Part of Speech (POS) features and Dependency Parsing (DP) features are captured by profiling embeddings and Graph Convolutional Network (GCN), respectively. We also evaluate our model on a real-world dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark approaches significantly.

* 9 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2111.03212 
  
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