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"Image To Image Translation": models, code, and papers

Adversarial Image Translation: Unrestricted Adversarial Examples in Face Recognition Systems

May 27, 2019
Kazuya Kakizaki, Kosuke Yoshida

Thanks to recent advances in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), face recognition systems have achieved high accuracy in classification of a large number of face images. However, recent works demonstrate that DNNs could be vulnerable to adversarial examples and raise concerns about robustness of face recognition systems. In particular adversarial examples that are not restricted to small perturbations could be more serious risks since conventional certified defenses might be ineffective against them. To shed light on the vulnerability to this type of adversarial examples, we propose a flexible and efficient method to generate unrestricted adversarial examples using image translation techniques. Our method enables us to translate a source image into any desired facial appearance with large perturbations so that target face recognition systems could be deceived. Through our experiments, we demonstrate that our method achieves about 90% and 30% attack success rates under a white- and black-box setting, respectively. We also illustrate that our translated images are perceptually realistic and maintain personal identity while the perturbations are large enough to bypass certified defenses.

* Kazuya Kakizaki and Kosuke Yoshida share equal contributions 
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Bridging the Gap between Label- and Reference-based Synthesis in Multi-attribute Image-to-Image Translation

Oct 11, 2021
Qiusheng Huang, Zhilin Zheng, Xueqi Hu, Li Sun, Qingli Li

The image-to-image translation (I2IT) model takes a target label or a reference image as the input, and changes a source into the specified target domain. The two types of synthesis, either label- or reference-based, have substantial differences. Particularly, the label-based synthesis reflects the common characteristics of the target domain, and the reference-based shows the specific style similar to the reference. This paper intends to bridge the gap between them in the task of multi-attribute I2IT. We design the label- and reference-based encoding modules (LEM and REM) to compare the domain differences. They first transfer the source image and target label (or reference) into a common embedding space, by providing the opposite directions through the attribute difference vector. Then the two embeddings are simply fused together to form the latent code S_rand (or S_ref), reflecting the domain style differences, which is injected into each layer of the generator by SPADE. To link LEM and REM, so that two types of results benefit each other, we encourage the two latent codes to be close, and set up the cycle consistency between the forward and backward translations on them. Moreover, the interpolation between the S_rand and S_ref is also used to synthesize an extra image. Experiments show that label- and reference-based synthesis are indeed mutually promoted, so that we can have the diverse results from LEM, and high quality results with the similar style of the reference.

* accepted by ICCV 2021 
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Protecting Against Image Translation Deepfakes by Leaking Universal Perturbations from Black-Box Neural Networks

Jun 11, 2020
Nataniel Ruiz, Sarah Adel Bargal, Stan Sclaroff

In this work, we develop efficient disruptions of black-box image translation deepfake generation systems. We are the first to demonstrate black-box deepfake generation disruption by presenting image translation formulations of attacks initially proposed for classification models. Nevertheless, a naive adaptation of classification black-box attacks results in a prohibitive number of queries for image translation systems in the real-world. We present a frustratingly simple yet highly effective algorithm Leaking Universal Perturbations (LUP), that significantly reduces the number of queries needed to attack an image. LUP consists of two phases: (1) a short leaking phase where we attack the network using traditional black-box attacks and gather information on successful attacks on a small dataset and (2) and an exploitation phase where we leverage said information to subsequently attack the network with improved efficiency. Our attack reduces the total number of queries necessary to attack GANimation and StarGAN by 30%.

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Depth Estimation from Single-shot Monocular Endoscope Image Using Image Domain Adaptation And Edge-Aware Depth Estimation

Jan 12, 2022
Masahiro Oda, Hayato Itoh, Kiyohito Tanaka, Hirotsugu Takabatake, Masaki Mori, Hiroshi Natori, Kensaku Mori

We propose a depth estimation method from a single-shot monocular endoscopic image using Lambertian surface translation by domain adaptation and depth estimation using multi-scale edge loss. We employ a two-step estimation process including Lambertian surface translation from unpaired data and depth estimation. The texture and specular reflection on the surface of an organ reduce the accuracy of depth estimations. We apply Lambertian surface translation to an endoscopic image to remove these texture and reflections. Then, we estimate the depth by using a fully convolutional network (FCN). During the training of the FCN, improvement of the object edge similarity between an estimated image and a ground truth depth image is important for getting better results. We introduced a muti-scale edge loss function to improve the accuracy of depth estimation. We quantitatively evaluated the proposed method using real colonoscopic images. The estimated depth values were proportional to the real depth values. Furthermore, we applied the estimated depth images to automated anatomical location identification of colonoscopic images using a convolutional neural network. The identification accuracy of the network improved from 69.2% to 74.1% by using the estimated depth images.

* Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization, 2021 
* Accepted paper as an oral presentation at Joint MICCAI workshop 2021, AE-CAI/CARE/OR2.0 
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XGAN: Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation for Many-to-Many Mappings

Jul 10, 2018
Amélie Royer, Konstantinos Bousmalis, Stephan Gouws, Fred Bertsch, Inbar Mosseri, Forrester Cole, Kevin Murphy

Style transfer usually refers to the task of applying color and texture information from a specific style image to a given content image while preserving the structure of the latter. Here we tackle the more generic problem of semantic style transfer: given two unpaired collections of images, we aim to learn a mapping between the corpus-level style of each collection, while preserving semantic content shared across the two domains. We introduce XGAN ("Cross-GAN"), a dual adversarial autoencoder, which captures a shared representation of the common domain semantic content in an unsupervised way, while jointly learning the domain-to-domain image translations in both directions. We exploit ideas from the domain adaptation literature and define a semantic consistency loss which encourages the model to preserve semantics in the learned embedding space. We report promising qualitative results for the task of face-to-cartoon translation. The cartoon dataset, CartoonSet, we collected for this purpose is publicly available at as a new benchmark for semantic style transfer.

* Domain Adaptation for Visual Understanding at ICML'18 
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Biphasic Learning of GANs for High-Resolution Image-to-Image Translation

Apr 14, 2019
Jie Cao, Huaibo Huang, Yi Li, Jingtuo Liu, Ran He, Zhenan Sun

Despite that the performance of image-to-image translation has been significantly improved by recent progress in generative models, current methods still suffer from severe degradation in training stability and sample quality when applied to the high-resolution situation. In this work, we present a novel training framework for GANs, namely biphasic learning, to achieve image-to-image translation in multiple visual domains at $1024^2$ resolution. Our core idea is to design an adjustable objective function that varies across training phases. Within the biphasic learning framework, we propose a novel inherited adversarial loss to achieve the enhancement of model capacity and stabilize the training phase transition. Furthermore, we introduce a perceptual-level consistency loss through mutual information estimation and maximization. To verify the superiority of the proposed method, we apply it to a wide range of face-related synthesis tasks and conduct experiments on multiple large-scale datasets. Through comprehensive quantitative analyses, we demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms existing methods.

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MI^2GAN: Generative Adversarial Network for Medical Image Domain Adaptation using Mutual Information Constraint

Jul 30, 2020
Xinpeng Xie, Jiawei Chen, Yuexiang Li, Linlin Shen, Kai Ma, Yefeng Zheng

Domain shift between medical images from multicentres is still an open question for the community, which degrades the generalization performance of deep learning models. Generative adversarial network (GAN), which synthesize plausible images, is one of the potential solutions to address the problem. However, the existing GAN-based approaches are prone to fail at preserving image-objects in image-to-image (I2I) translation, which reduces their practicality on domain adaptation tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel GAN (namely MI$^2$GAN) to maintain image-contents during cross-domain I2I translation. Particularly, we disentangle the content features from domain information for both the source and translated images, and then maximize the mutual information between the disentangled content features to preserve the image-objects. The proposed MI$^2$GAN is evaluated on two tasks---polyp segmentation using colonoscopic images and the segmentation of optic disc and cup in fundus images. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MI$^2$GAN can not only generate elegant translated images, but also significantly improve the generalization performance of widely used deep learning networks (e.g., U-Net).

* The first two authors contributed equally 
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FlexIT: Towards Flexible Semantic Image Translation

Mar 09, 2022
Guillaume Couairon, Asya Grechka, Jakob Verbeek, Holger Schwenk, Matthieu Cord

Deep generative models, like GANs, have considerably improved the state of the art in image synthesis, and are able to generate near photo-realistic images in structured domains such as human faces. Based on this success, recent work on image editing proceeds by projecting images to the GAN latent space and manipulating the latent vector. However, these approaches are limited in that only images from a narrow domain can be transformed, and with only a limited number of editing operations. We propose FlexIT, a novel method which can take any input image and a user-defined text instruction for editing. Our method achieves flexible and natural editing, pushing the limits of semantic image translation. First, FlexIT combines the input image and text into a single target point in the CLIP multimodal embedding space. Via the latent space of an auto-encoder, we iteratively transform the input image toward the target point, ensuring coherence and quality with a variety of novel regularization terms. We propose an evaluation protocol for semantic image translation, and thoroughly evaluate our method on ImageNet. Code will be made publicly available.

* accepted at CVPR 2022 
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Mocycle-GAN: Unpaired Video-to-Video Translation

Aug 26, 2019
Yang Chen, Yingwei Pan, Ting Yao, Xinmei Tian, Tao Mei

Unsupervised image-to-image translation is the task of translating an image from one domain to another in the absence of any paired training examples and tends to be more applicable to practical applications. Nevertheless, the extension of such synthesis from image-to-image to video-to-video is not trivial especially when capturing spatio-temporal structures in videos. The difficulty originates from the aspect that not only the visual appearance in each frame but also motion between consecutive frames should be realistic and consistent across transformation. This motivates us to explore both appearance structure and temporal continuity in video synthesis. In this paper, we present a new Motion-guided Cycle GAN, dubbed as Mocycle-GAN, that novelly integrates motion estimation into unpaired video translator. Technically, Mocycle-GAN capitalizes on three types of constrains: adversarial constraint discriminating between synthetic and real frame, cycle consistency encouraging an inverse translation on both frame and motion, and motion translation validating the transfer of motion between consecutive frames. Extensive experiments are conducted on video-to-labels and labels-to-video translation, and superior results are reported when comparing to state-of-the-art methods. More remarkably, we qualitatively demonstrate our Mocycle-GAN for both flower-to-flower and ambient condition transfer.

* Accepted as a full paper for ACMMM 2019 
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