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"Image To Image Translation": models, code, and papers

RelGAN: Multi-Domain Image-to-Image Translation via Relative Attributes

Aug 20, 2019
Po-Wei Wu, Yu-Jing Lin, Che-Han Chang, Edward Y. Chang, Shih-Wei Liao

Multi-domain image-to-image translation has gained increasing attention recently. Previous methods take an image and some target attributes as inputs and generate an output image with the desired attributes. However, such methods have two limitations. First, these methods assume binary-valued attributes and thus cannot yield satisfactory results for fine-grained control. Second, these methods require specifying the entire set of target attributes, even if most of the attributes would not be changed. To address these limitations, we propose RelGAN, a new method for multi-domain image-to-image translation. The key idea is to use relative attributes, which describes the desired change on selected attributes. Our method is capable of modifying images by changing particular attributes of interest in a continuous manner while preserving the other attributes. Experimental results demonstrate both the quantitative and qualitative effectiveness of our method on the tasks of facial attribute transfer and interpolation.

* Accepted to ICCV 2019 
  
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A Style-aware Discriminator for Controllable Image Translation

Mar 29, 2022
Kunhee Kim, Sanghun Park, Eunyeong Jeon, Taehun Kim, Daijin Kim

Current image-to-image translations do not control the output domain beyond the classes used during training, nor do they interpolate between different domains well, leading to implausible results. This limitation largely arises because labels do not consider the semantic distance. To mitigate such problems, we propose a style-aware discriminator that acts as a critic as well as a style encoder to provide conditions. The style-aware discriminator learns a controllable style space using prototype-based self-supervised learning and simultaneously guides the generator. Experiments on multiple datasets verify that the proposed model outperforms current state-of-the-art image-to-image translation methods. In contrast with current methods, the proposed approach supports various applications, including style interpolation, content transplantation, and local image translation.

* 2022 CVPR 
  
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One-to-one Mapping for Unpaired Image-to-image Translation

Sep 16, 2019
Zengming Shen, S. Kevin Zhou, Yifan Chen, Bogdan Georgescu, Xuqi Liu, Thomas S. Huang

Recently image-to-image translation has attracted significant interests in the literature, starting from the successful use of the generative adversarial network (GAN), to the introduction of cyclic constraint, to extensions to multiple domains. However, in existing approaches, there is no guarantee that the mapping between two image domains is unique or one-to-one. Here we propose a self-inverse network learning approach for unpaired image-to-image translation. Building on top of CycleGAN, we learn a self-inverse function by simply augmenting the training samples by switching inputs and outputs during training. The outcome of such learning is a proven one-to-one mapping function. Our extensive experiments on a variety of detests, including cross-modal medical image synthesis, object transfiguration, and semantic labeling, consistently demonstrate clear improvement over the CycleGAN method both qualitatively and quantitatively. Especially our proposed method reaches the state-of-the-art result on the label to photo direction of the cityscapes benchmark dataset.

* 8 pages, 6 figures 
  
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Memory-efficient GAN-based Domain Translation of High Resolution 3D Medical Images

Oct 06, 2020
Hristina Uzunova, Jan Ehrhardt, Heinz Handels

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are currently rarely applied on 3D medical images of large size, due to their immense computational demand. The present work proposes a multi-scale patch-based GAN approach for establishing unpaired domain translation by generating 3D medical image volumes of high resolution in a memory-efficient way. The key idea to enable memory-efficient image generation is to first generate a low-resolution version of the image followed by the generation of patches of constant sizes but successively growing resolutions. To avoid patch artifacts and incorporate global information, the patch generation is conditioned on patches from previous resolution scales. Those multi-scale GANs are trained to generate realistically looking images from image sketches in order to perform an unpaired domain translation. This allows to preserve the topology of the test data and generate the appearance of the training domain data. The evaluation of the domain translation scenarios is performed on brain MRIs of size 155x240x240 and thorax CTs of size up to 512x512x512. Compared to common patch-based approaches, the multi-resolution scheme enables better image quality and prevents patch artifacts. Also, it ensures constant GPU memory demand independent from the image size, allowing for the generation of arbitrarily large images.

* Accepted for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics 
  
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Semantic Example Guided Image-to-Image Translation

Oct 04, 2019
Jialu Huang, Jing Liao, Tak Wu Sam Kwong

Many image-to-image (I2I) translation problems are in nature of high diversity that a single input may have various counterparts. Prior works proposed the multi-modal network that can build a many-to-many mapping between two visual domains. However, most of them are guided by sampled noises. Some others encode the reference images into a latent vector, by which the semantic information of the reference image will be washed away. In this work, we aim to provide a solution to control the output based on references semantically. Given a reference image and an input in another domain, a semantic matching is first performed between the two visual contents and generates the auxiliary image, which is explicitly encouraged to preserve semantic characteristics of the reference. A deep network then is used for I2I translation and the final outputs are expected to be semantically similar to both the input and the reference; however, no such paired data can satisfy that dual-similarity in a supervised fashion, so we build up a self-supervised framework to serve the training purpose. We improve the quality and diversity of the outputs by employing non-local blocks and a multi-task architecture. We assess the proposed method through extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluations and also presented comparisons with several state-of-art models.

* 2020 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works 
  
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Improved Part Segmentation Performance by Optimising Realism of Synthetic Images using Cycle Generative Adversarial Networks

Mar 16, 2018
Ruud Barth, Jochen Hemming, Eldert J. van Henten

In this paper we report on improved part segmentation performance using convolutional neural networks to reduce the dependency on the large amount of manually annotated empirical images. This was achieved by optimising the visual realism of synthetic agricultural images.In Part I, a cycle consistent generative adversarial network was applied to synthetic and empirical images with the objective to generate more realistic synthetic images by translating them to the empirical domain. We first hypothesise and confirm that plant part image features such as color and texture become more similar to the empirical domain after translation of the synthetic images.Results confirm this with an improved mean color distribution correlation with the empirical data prior of 0.62 and post translation of 0.90. Furthermore, the mean image features of contrast, homogeneity, energy and entropy moved closer to the empirical mean, post translation. In Part II, 7 experiments were performed using convolutional neural networks with different combinations of synthetic, synthetic translated to empirical and empirical images. We hypothesised that the translated images can be used for (i) improved learning of empirical images, and (ii) that learning without any fine-tuning with empirical images is improved by bootstrapping with translated images over bootstrapping with synthetic images. Results confirm our second and third hypotheses. First a maximum intersection-over-union performance was achieved of 0.52 when bootstrapping with translated images and fine-tuning with empirical images; an 8% increase compared to only using synthetic images. Second, training without any empirical fine-tuning resulted in an average IOU of 0.31; a 55% performance increase over previous methods that only used synthetic images.

  
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From Words to Sentences: A Progressive Learning Approach for Zero-resource Machine Translation with Visual Pivots

Jun 03, 2019
Shizhe Chen, Qin Jin, Jianlong Fu

The neural machine translation model has suffered from the lack of large-scale parallel corpora. In contrast, we humans can learn multi-lingual translations even without parallel texts by referring our languages to the external world. To mimic such human learning behavior, we employ images as pivots to enable zero-resource translation learning. However, a picture tells a thousand words, which makes multi-lingual sentences pivoted by the same image noisy as mutual translations and thus hinders the translation model learning. In this work, we propose a progressive learning approach for image-pivoted zero-resource machine translation. Since words are less diverse when grounded in the image, we first learn word-level translation with image pivots, and then progress to learn the sentence-level translation by utilizing the learned word translation to suppress noises in image-pivoted multi-lingual sentences. Experimental results on two widely used image-pivot translation datasets, IAPR-TC12 and Multi30k, show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.

* Accepted by IJCAI 2019 
  
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Stochastic Actor-Executor-Critic for Image-to-Image Translation

Dec 14, 2021
Ziwei Luo, Jing Hu, Xin Wang, Siwei Lyu, Bin Kong, Youbing Yin, Qi Song, Xi Wu

Training a model-free deep reinforcement learning model to solve image-to-image translation is difficult since it involves high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces. In this paper, we draw inspiration from the recent success of the maximum entropy reinforcement learning framework designed for challenging continuous control problems to develop stochastic policies over high dimensional continuous spaces including image representation, generation, and control simultaneously. Central to this method is the Stochastic Actor-Executor-Critic (SAEC) which is an off-policy actor-critic model with an additional executor to generate realistic images. Specifically, the actor focuses on the high-level representation and control policy by a stochastic latent action, as well as explicitly directs the executor to generate low-level actions to manipulate the state. Experiments on several image-to-image translation tasks have demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed SAEC when facing high-dimensional continuous space problems.

* IJCAI 2021 
  
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Disrupting Deepfakes: Adversarial Attacks Against Conditional Image Translation Networks and Facial Manipulation Systems

Mar 06, 2020
Nataniel Ruiz, Sarah Adel Bargal, Stan Sclaroff

Face modification systems using deep learning have become increasingly powerful and accessible. Given images of a person's face, such systems can generate new images of that same person under different expressions and poses. Some systems can also modify targeted attributes such as hair color or age. This type of manipulated images and video have been coined Deepfakes. In order to prevent a malicious user from generating modified images of a person without their consent we tackle the new problem of generating adversarial attacks against such image translation systems, which disrupt the resulting output image. We call this problem disrupting deepfakes. Most image translation architectures are generative models conditioned on an attribute (e.g. put a smile on this person's face). We are first to propose and successfully apply (1) class transferable adversarial attacks that generalize to different classes, which means that the attacker does not need to have knowledge about the conditioning class, and (2) adversarial training for generative adversarial networks (GANs) as a first step towards robust image translation networks. Finally, in gray-box scenarios, blurring can mount a successful defense against disruption. We present a spread-spectrum adversarial attack, which evades blur defenses.

  
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