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Abstract:3D point cloud (PC) -- a collection of discrete geometric samples of a physical object's surface -- is typically large in size, which entails expensive subsequent operations like viewpoint image rendering and object recognition. Leveraging on recent advances in graph sampling, we propose a fast PC sub-sampling algorithm that reduces its size while preserving the overall object shape. Specifically, to articulate a sampling objective, we first assume a super-resolution (SR) method based on feature graph Laplacian regularization (FGLR) that reconstructs the original high-resolution PC, given 3D points chosen by a sampling matrix $\H$. We prove that minimizing a worst-case SR reconstruction error is equivalent to maximizing the smallest eigenvalue $\lambda_{\min}$ of a matrix $\H^{\top} \H + \mu \cL$, where $\cL$ is a symmetric, positive semi-definite matrix computed from the neighborhood graph connecting the 3D points. Instead, for fast computation we maximize a lower bound $\lambda^-_{\min}(\H^{\top} \H + \mu \cL)$ via selection of $\H$ in three steps. Interpreting $\cL$ as a generalized graph Laplacian matrix corresponding to an unbalanced signed graph $\cG$, we first approximate $\cG$ with a balanced graph $\cG_B$ with the corresponding generalized graph Laplacian matrix $\cL_B$. Second, leveraging on a recent theorem called Gershgorin disc perfect alignment (GDPA), we perform a similarity transform $\cL_p = \S \cL_B \S^{-1}$ so that Gershgorin disc left-ends of $\cL_p$ are all aligned at the same value $\lambda_{\min}(\cL_B)$. Finally, we perform PC sub-sampling on $\cG_B$ using a graph sampling algorithm to maximize $\lambda^-_{\min}(\H^{\top} \H + \mu \cL_p)$ in roughly linear time. Experimental results show that 3D points chosen by our algorithm outperformed competing schemes both numerically and visually in SR reconstruction quality.